St. Stephen’s Day in Croatia – Sveti Stjepan, Štefanje

Sveti Stjepan
Image by

On December 26, the day after Christmas, Croatians celebrate Sveti Stjepan (St. Stephen’s Day). St. Stephen’s Day is a Catholic holiday, so Christians predominantly celebrate it.

For less or non-religious citizens, this is just another state holiday when you can get a day off work. The government and most shops are closed on this day.

Along with Christmas, St. Stephen’s Day results in two consecutive days off from work. If we’re lucky and Sveti Stjepan falls on Friday, Croatia will get four days off in a row to stay at home, get family time, travel, or enjoy Christmas activities during Advent.

In this post, we cover:

The facts are these…

Celebration of St. Stephen’s Day in Croatia – Štefanje

Who was sveti Stjepan (Saint Stephen)?

St. Stephen is usually depicted as a young man dressed in đakonska dalmatika (deacon’s dress). In one hand, he holds a martyr’s palm branch and a stone or a book in another.

Croatian variations of the name for St. Stephen’s Day include:

  • Sveti Stjepan
  • Stjepan
  • Štefanje
  • Stipanje
  • Stjepanje
  • Stipanovo
  • Stipanjdan
  • Blagdan Svetog Stjepana
  • Prvi dan po Božiću

St. Stephen was prvomučenik (protomartyr) and the first Christian martyr. He was one of 7 chosen deacons at the beginning of the church.

After the death of Jesus Christ, St. Stephen preached Jesus’ doctrine and belonged to the community of Christian scholars. He was such a great believer that he died a martyr’s death in the name of Jesus Christ.

St. Stephen is a symbol of forgiveness and the fight against injustice. He is also worshiped as the guardian of:

  • Deacons
  • Masons
  • Stonemasons
  • Coffin makers
  • People who suffer from headaches

Death of Saint Stephen

Stoning of St Stephen
Image by Bible Study Tools

St. Stephen was one of the first deacons and an assistant to Jesus’ apostles. He preached the gospel, served his community, and carried the Eucharist to sick and imprisoned people.

In 34 AD, St. Stephen began speaking out that the Židovi (Jews) should not have killed Isus Krist (Jesus Christ) and that they should end the persecution of prophets. In response, he was falsely accused of speaking against Bog (God) and Mojsije (Moses). He was put on trial for blasphemy and then stoned to death.

St. Stephen’s message to the world

Even during his stoning, he didn’t speak anything negative. He prayed to God to take his spirit and forgive his enemies. According to Biblija (Bible), his last words were: Gospodine, ne uzmi im ovo za grijeh (Lord, don’t take this for their sin).

So, even in moments when he was dying because of injustice and human malice, he remained noble, modest, and full of understanding. St. Stephen gave up his life for his ideals – Jesus and justice.

How is Štefanje (St. Stephen’s Day) celebrated in Croatia

St. Stephen’s Day is a public holiday in Croatia celebrated on December 26. However, it is celebrated on different days in different churches, including:

  • Catholic Church – December 26
  • Orthodox Church – December 27
  • According to the Gregorian calendar – January 9
Sveti Stjepan service
Image by Lički Osik

Present-day Croatian Štefanje customs

Saint Stephen means kruna (crown) or vijenac (wreath) in Greek; more precisely, στέφανος (stephanos) meaning crown. This is the reason why everyone called Stjepan, Štef, Štefanija, Štefica, Krunoslav, and Krunoslava, celebrate their name day on December 26.

On Saint Stephen’s Day, people celebrate a new beginning. We celebrate and worship the “little” man who died for his noble ideals and justice.

On this day, the tradition is to visit relatives, friends, neighbors, and anyone important in your life, congratulate them, and celebrate Christmas with them. On Christmas, you celebrate at home with your family, and the day after, you mingle around to spread happiness with others.

Old Croatian Štefanje customs

There are some old romantic Croatian customs, but it is unclear if they still remain in practice.

On the island of Zlarin, there was a tradition called rusarij. People would go near the sea, led by a priest. They would sing and dance kolo (wheel), a South Slavic traditional circle dance.

In northern Croatia, Saint Stephen was the guardian of horses and mules, so people would celebrate them. In Istria, people ride and race horses. Some believed that young men must ride their horses on St. Stephen’s Day to ensure they would be fat and well-fed.

Mužikaši (dialect for musicians) from villages near Zagreb would go out on the night between Christmas and St. Stephen’s Day. They would go to people who celebrate their name day on St. Stephen’s Day and sing to them.

[Read: The 3 Croatian dialects: Što, Kaj, and Ča]

There has also been a superstition that if the rain falls on St. Stephen’s Day, it means that the fields will yield less wheat in the following year.

These traditions may be romantic and a bit nostalgic, but they also sound magical. Although people didn’t have money, they still used this holiday as a reason to be grateful, humble, and appreciate their loved ones.

View a full list of Croatian holidays here.

View our other holiday posts

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Please note: Information provided by Expat in Croatia is only for the purposes of guidance. It does not constitute legal or financial advice in any form. Croatian laws and bureaucratic rules often change, and each personal case is individual, so different rules may apply. For legal advice, contact us to consult with a licensed Croatian lawyer. For financial advice, contact us to consult with a licensed Croatian tax advisor or accountant.

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