Rights of the LGBTQIA+ community in Croatia
During the last few years, LGBTQIA+ rights in Croatia have been extended. Progress and acceptance of the LGBTQIA+ community are expanding. Although many laws protect their rights, many laws in Croatia still discriminate against them.
Zagreb has a lot of LGBTQIA+ friendly places and happenings, including clubs, bars, gatherings, and events. Some friendly cities in Croatia include Split, Rijeka, Osijek, Hvar, Rab, Rovinj, and Dubrovnik. More than 200.000 LGBTQIA+ tourists visit Croatia every year.
In this post, we cover:
- Acts protecting the LGBTQIA+ community
- Acts discriminating against the LGBTQIA+ community
- Short list of LGBTQIA+ rights in Croatia
The facts are these…
Rights of the LGBTQIA+ community in Croatia
The following laws currently on the books in Croatia include protections for the LGBTQIA+ community, either directly or indirectly. By indirectly, we mean that discrimination on the basis of sex is banned.
#1 Constitution of the Republic of Croatia
Everyone in Croatia has rights and freedoms regardless of their:
- Political or other belief
- National or social origin
- Social status
- Other characteristics
Everyone is equal before the law. Everyone is guaranteed respect and legal protection of his personal and family life, dignity, reputation, and honor. Any encouragement to war or the use of violence related to national, racial, religious, or any other form of intolerance is prohibited and punishable.
This is what the Constitution says, but in practice, LGBTQIA+ members are often discriminated against, humiliated, and threatened. The Constitution is a general legal act with the highest legal force in Croatia.
Ustav Republike Hrvatske (Constitution of the Republic of Croatia) is available here.
#2 Gender Equality Act
Zakon o ravnopravnosti spolova (Gender Equality Act) prohibits any discrimination based on sexual orientation and any encouragement of discrimination. The act also provides for the removal of gender stereotypes from school textbooks and media reporting.
This act is considered organic, which means that all other Croatian acts must be aligned with it.
The Gender Equality Act is available here.
#3 Same-sex Life Partnership Act
Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola (Law on Life Partnership of Persons of the Same Sex) regulates the life partnership of two same-sex partners and the legal effects of the existence of this partnership. This act defines the right to maintenance and the right to acquire joint property.
Anti-discrimination regulations from this act protect members of sexual minorities from discrimination based on sexual orientation or the existence of a same-sex life partnership.
The Same-sex Life Partnership Act is available here.
#4 Anti-discrimination Act
Zakon o suzbijanju diskriminacije (Anti-discrimination Act) covers the protection and promotion of equality and creates preconditions for the realization of equal opportunities. It regulates the protection against any discrimination, including sex, marital or family status, gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation.
The Anti-discrimination Act is available here.
#5 Criminal Act
Kazneni zakon (Criminal Act) enables criminal protection of equality and equality of all citizens. It is the basis for the realization of many other rights and freedoms in Croatia. The law covers the incrimination of discrimination based on sexual orientation and other characteristics. Its regulations enable sanctioning discrimination.
Gender identity and gender expression are not explicitly included in this act. However, by interpreting other Croatian acts and international norms, the protection of people from discrimination based on gender expression and gender identity is possible through this law.
The Criminal Act is available here.
#6 Media Act
Zakon o medijima (Media act) says that it is forbidden to transmit program media content that encourages or glorifies any inequality, including sexual inequality or inequality based on sexual orientation. It is also forbidden to provoke any hostility or intolerance, including one based on sexual orientation.
The media must respect people’s privacy, dignity, reputation, and honor regardless of gender and sexual orientation. Advertising considered offensive or degrading concerning gender and sexual orientation is not allowed.
The Media Act is available here.
#7 Electronic Media Act
Zakon o elektroničkim medijima (Electronic Media Act) says it is not allowed to encourage or protect against hate and discrimination, including gender, marital or family status, gender identity, expression, and sexual orientation in audio and audiovisual media services. This also includes anti-Semitism, xenophobia, and ideas of fascist, nationalist, communist, and other totalitarian regimes.
The Electronic Media Act is available here.
#8 Scientific Activity and Higher Education Act
Zakon o znanstvenoj djelatnosti i visokom obrazovanju (Scientific Activity and Higher Education Act) define that all students must be enrolled in the university, polytechnic, or college according to equal rights regardless of gender, sexual orientation, and other personal characteristics.
Scientific Activity and Higher Education Act is available here.
#9 Law on International and Temporary Protection
Zakon o međunarodnoj i privremenoj zaštiti (Law on International and Temporary Protection) defines that it is not allowed to forcibly remove or in any way return an alien to a country where their life or liberty would be jeopardized due to racial, religious, or national origin, belonging to a particular social group or political opinion, or to a country where they may be subjected to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
The Law on International and Temporary Protection is available here.
#10 Civil Servants Act
Zakon o službenim državnicima (Civil Servants Act) declares that civil servants mustn’t discriminate or privilege citizens based on gender, marital or family status, sexual orientation, or other reasons that are opposite to the Croatian constitution and acts that define rights and freedom.
The Civil Servants Act is available here.
#11 Sports Act
Zakon o sportu (Sports Act) declares that sport must be available to everyone under the same rights regardless of gender, sexual orientation, and other personal characteristics.
The Sports Act is available here.
#12 Volunteering Act
Zakon o volonterstvu (Volunteering Act) says that volunteering organizers must equally treat all volunteers regardless of their gender, sexual orientation, gender expression, marital status, family obligations, and other personal characteristics.
The Volunteering Act is available here.
#13 Pension Insurance Act
According to Zakon o mirovinskom osiguranju (Pension Insurance Act), people in a same-sex relationship have the right to inherit a family pension from their partner.
The Pension Insurance Act is available here.
The below acts include clauses that specifically discriminate against LGBTQIA+ people in Croatia, predominantly through the exclusion of rights.
#1 Family Act
Obiteljski zakon (Family Act) denies the right to marriage for same-sex couples. According to this act, marriage is an orderly living community between a woman and a man. It discriminates against people based on sexual orientation, meaning that same-sex couples don’t have the same rights as heterosexual couples.
According to this act, adoption is available only to heterosexual couples. However, all these limitations are unconstitutional and against other Croatian acts.
In 2021, a same-sex Croatian couple received permission from Upravni sud u Zagrebu (Administrative Court in Zagreb) to adopt after several years of legal battles. The competent Ministry submitted an appeal, but in May 2022, Visoki upravni sud Republike Hrvatske (High Administrative Court of the Republic of Croatia) brought the same decision as Upravni sud. As a result, same-sex life partners in Croatia can now start the adoption process. This decision will impact other Croatian acts, and we will keep you posted.
The Family Act is available here.
#2 Act on Protection of Patient Rights
According to the Zakon o zaštiti prava pacijenata (Act on Protection of Patient Rights), only close family members and marital partners can make decisions in medical emergencies. This means that life partners and same-sex couples are discriminated against and excluded.
The Act of Protection of Patient Rights is available here.
#3 Croatian Citizenship Act
Zakon o hrvatskom državljanstvu (Croatian Citizenship Act) discriminates against homosexual people. According to this act, same-sex partners of Croatian nationals cannot apply for Croatian nationality based on their same-sex partnership. This act considers a heterosexual marriage as the only marriage.
The specific clause says “stranac koji je u braku s hrvatskim državljanom”, which means “foreigner married to a Croatian national”. Since marriage is defined between a man and a woman, this implies that same-sex marriages would not count.
However, this conflicts with the Family Act, which can be used to argue that same-sex spouses are recognized under the law. In practice, people with a life partnership qualify for Croatian citizenship.
The Croatian Citizenship Act is available here.
#4 National Population Policy
Nacionalna populacijska politika (National Population Policy) defines different subsidies for young married couples. However, it discriminates against and excludes same-sex couples.
The National Population Policy is available here.
#5 Other acts, regulations, and laws
Other legal acts that discriminate against the LGBTQIA+ community are acts, regulations, and laws that use these terms:
- Married couple
- Extramarital union
These terms often appear in acts that define:
- Patient rights
- Social welfare
The number of acts that discriminate against the LGBTQIA+ community is large. The easiest solution would be to change the Family Act to allow marriage to same-sex couples. This way, other acts that include the term “marriage” would be transformed into acts that protect the rights of the LGBTQIA+ community. All citizens would be equal against the law regardless of their sexual orientation.
Here is a summary of all LGBTQIA+ rights in Croatia:
- Legal same-sex activity (since 1977)
- Equal age of consent (since 1998)
- Anti-discrimination laws
- Recognition of same-sex relationships (since 2003)
- Life partnership (since 2014)
- Adoption after the death of a life partner
- Joint fostering (since 2020)
- Joint adoption (since 2022)
- Service in military bodies
- Change of a legal gender
- In vitro fertilization of lesbian couples
- Family pension
Here is a list of forbidden LGBTQIA+ rights:
- Same-sex marriage (since 2013)
- Commercial surrogacy for male couples (regardless of sexual orientation)
- Blood donation for men who practice same-sex sexual activities
View our other LGBTQIA+ posts
- All the pride parades in Croatia
- How to obtain a life partnership for same-sex couples in Croatia
- Interview with Vicko Lazo of Milk, the first gay bar in Dubrovnik
- LGBTQIA+ friendly cafe bars and nightclubs in Croatia
- LGBTQIA+ web sites & Facebook communities
- Non-Profit LGBTQIA+ Organizations in Croatia
Please note: Information provided by Expat in Croatia is only for the purposes of guidance. It does not constitute legal or financial advice in any form. Croatian laws and bureaucratic rules often change, and each personal case is individual, so different rules may apply. For legal advice, contact us to consult with a licensed Croatian lawyer. For financial advice, contact us to consult with a licensed Croatian tax advisor or accountant.