How laws are made in Croatia
The process of passing a new law in Croatia is called zakonodavni postupak (legislative procedure) as well as postupak donošenja zakona (process of bringing a law). Passing new laws is the responsibility of the Croatian parliament, known as Sabor.
The Sabor can pass a variety of measures, including Ustav (constitution), constitutional law, laws, državni proračun (state budget), decisions, declarations, resolutions, recommendations, charters, and conclusions.
Passing a law is a detailed process that must pass through several stages before it can be made into law.
In this post, we cover:
- Creating a suggestion
- What a suggestion looks like
- Consideration of a law
- First reading
- Final suggestion
- Second reading
- Third reading
The facts are these…
The process of creating a new Croatian law or amending an existing law starts with a written suggestion called prijedlog zakona.
People who can suggest a new law are:
- Parliament representatives
- Parliament political group
- Parliament working bodies
The suggested change to law must contain solutions in the form of legal directives. These solutions can represent alternatives to existing practices or brand-new solutions to problems or topics not yet addressed. All the proposed solutions must contain detailed explanations.
Once formulated, the suggestion is submitted to the predsjednik Sabora (president of the parliament).
The prijedlog zakona must contain:
- Constitutional basis for the law
- Basic question that must be regulated by the law
- Consequences of the law
- Resources for the law
- Detailed explanation of the proposed law change
- Related regulations of the existing law if the law already exists
In addition, the initiator may also provide:
- Expert opinions
- International contracts
- Report on conducted consultations with the public
The next step is for the suggestion to be considered by committees within the Sabor. The two committees that take control of the suggestion first are predsjednik matičnog radnog tijela (president of the mother working body) and predsjednik Odbora za zakonodavstvo (president of the committee on legislation).
There may be additional committees involved depending on which topics are covered in the proposed law. They are required to add the suggestion of the law to their daily agenda and conduct a discussion. It can be denied later during the first vote, but the suggestion must be heard. Discussion cannot be silenced for purely political reasons.
The committees, also referred to as working bodies, state their opinion on the elements included in the suggestion. The committee on legislation then states its opinion about the constitutional basis for the law.
After considering the suggestion, the committee prepares and delivers a report to the Sabor. The report contains the opinion, points of view, remarks, and suggestions established in the earlier discussion.
Matično radno tijelo (mother working body) examines this report, compiles its own report, and gives it to the Sabor. After they prepare the report, a representative is selected who is responsible for presenting the opinion, points of view, and suggestions about the law during a session of the parliament. This person represents the committees outside of Sabor.
The president of the parliament submits all the reports of the included committees to the promoter of the law and representatives. This second representative, referred to as the promoter, represents the committees within Sabor.
The first reading of the law is conducted during a session of parliament. Representatives of the Sabor are given the opportunity to argue all aspects of the new law.
After the discussion, a vote is called from the members. Members vote by raising their hands. If the measure gains a simple majority, it will proceed in the process. If it fails to reach a majority, then the suggestion will be rejected.
If a member of Sabor wants to revisit the suggestion, it can be added back to the agenda for discussion three months after the initial rejection. If the law is accepted, the report is forwarded to the promoter. After that, the final suggestion of the law is made.
Next, the final version of the prijedlog zakona is drafted. This version must include:
- Reasons for passing the law
- Questions that will be answered by passing the law
- Explanation of directives of the law
- Financial plan for implementation
All parts and amendments that make up the suggested law must be analyzed part by part by members of the Sabor. After analysis, a vote is called in parliament. Members vote by raising their hands. The law will pass with a simple majority.
Once the final version of the law is ready, there is a second reading during a session of parliament. At this time, all parts of the law are analyzed step by step again. After this, the discussion is closed and the Sabor finalizes the decision on passing the new law.
The president of the Sabor signs the new law and all supporting documents. Then the law and documents are sent to the Croatian President, who passes the law. The law is published and announced in the state newspaper Narodne Novine and it is also recorded on zakon.hr where all the laws are published.
[Read: What is Narodne Novine]
The third reading is considered optional. It is usually only necessary when the law includes a large number of amendments or when amendments change most of the content of the final law.
And that’s how an idea becomes law in Croatia.
View our other state articles
- All the Croatian government ministries and what they do
- Branches of Croatian Government
- Croatia’s largest political parties
- Croatian Central State Office for Croats Abroad
- e-Građani (e-Citizens) – Online portal for Croatian government services
- How to vote in Croatia
Please note: Information provided by Expat in Croatia is only for the purposes of guidance. It does not constitute legal or financial advice in any form. Croatian laws and bureaucratic rules often change, and each personal case is individual, so different rules may apply. For legal advice, contact us to consult with a licensed Croatian lawyer. For financial advice, contact us to consult with a licensed Croatian tax advisor or accountant.